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prospective(prospective中文)

爱搭配3个月前 (09-12)生活技巧535

prospective(prospective中文)


步入教师行业,

愣是让一个不食人间烟火、

温情如水的姑娘练就了犀利的“灭绝神功”……


当然,没有不爱学生的老师,

在每次发火前,

他们其实已经默念了很多遍“不生气、不生气……”


想象一下老师在背后所付出的艰辛,

我们有什么理由不去努力学习和奋斗呢?

难道只有交学费那天才立flag好好学习吗?

此时此刻,

小编的耳畔仿佛又响起了老师不厌其烦的牢骚和亲切的谆谆教诲。




言归正传。那么教师节在中国古代是怎么由来的?那个时候人们也会庆祝教师节吗?

教师节的建立,标志着教师在中国已受到全社会的尊敬。这是因为教师的工作在很大程度上决定着中国的未来。每年的教师节,中国各地都以不同方式庆祝这个节日。

其实不止是现代,中国古代也会庆祝教师节,而这一切皆因中国教师的鼻祖——孔子而起源的。


Teachers’ Day is a day to recognize and thank teachers for their hard work throughout the year. In China, this holiday falls at the beginning of the fall semester and involves celebrating the contributions made by teachers by giving them gifts and conducting ceremonies to honor them.

教师节是表彰和感谢教师一年来的辛勤工作的日子。在中国,这个节日恰逢秋季学期伊始,人们会通过赠送礼物的方式颂扬老师的付出与贡献,也会举办一些庆祝活动来对教师加以表彰。

Although celebrating educators is a global phenomenon these days, Teachers’ Day in China is distinct due to its Confucian roots.

尽管全球各地都有庆祝教师节的习俗,但中国的教师节却与众不同。这与中国儒家文化的根源有关。

Before diving into the ins and outs of this important holiday, let’s first explore its historical evolution.Although not designated as an official holiday until the end of the twentieth century, Teachers’ Day in China has a long and fascinating history.

在深入了解这个重要节日的来龙去脉之前,让我们先来探索一下它的历史演变。虽然直到20世纪末,教师节才被确定为官方节日,但其在中国的发展历史却悠久而有趣。


Teachers’ Day in ancient China

古代的教师节

The earliest celebration that resembles the modern holiday first took place, though informally, over 2,000 years ago during th百思特网e Han dynasty. At that time, Teachers’ Day festivities (庆祝活动) were generally held on the 27th day of the eig百思特网hth lunar month, a date widely believed to be the birthday of China’s most influential educator and philosopher, Confucius.

与现代教师节相似的庆祝活动最早出现在2000多年前的汉朝,尽管那时不像今天这样正式。当时,教师节庆祝活动通常在农历八月二十七举行,这一天通常被认为是中国最有影响力的教育家和哲学家——孔子的生日。


Confucius, China’s first teacher

孔子,中国第一位老师

Confucius (551BC ‒ 479 BC), was born in the Spring and Autumn Period in modern day Shandong Province. His parents were neither peasants nor aristocrats, but belonged to a middle class of common gentry (绅士阶层) called "士".

孔子(公元前551 ‒ 公元前479年)出生于春秋时期,出生地位于如今的山东省。他的父母既不是农民也不是贵族,而是属于一个被称为“士”的中产阶级。

During this period, formal education was generally available only to children from elite families and consisted of a curriculum in the six arts, that is, rituals (礼仪), music, archery (射箭), chariot driving, literacy (识字) and mathematics.

在这个时期,一般只有上层社会家庭的儿童才能得到正规教育,包括六艺课程,即礼、乐、射、御、书和数。


After ascending (上升) through the ranks of various labor and government positions, Confucius quickly earned a reputation as a skilled educator and righteous (正直的) advisor. In addition to serving as Minister of Crime in his home state of Lu, he dedicated his life to educating others by establishing private academies that centered around Confucian ideology and were accessible to students of all social classes.

在各种劳工和政府职位中晋升后,孔子很快赢得了专业教育家和正直谋士的声誉。除了在他的家乡鲁国担任大司寇(注:管理刑事的官员)之外,他还通过建立以儒家思想为中心的私塾来教育他人,这些私塾向所有社会阶层的学生开放。


The status of teachers in ancient China

中国古代教师的地位

Confucius is often called the fathe百思特网r of all educators, and his emphasis on the importance of education meant that teachers in ancient China were also generally held in high esteem.

孔子经常被称为教师界的鼻祖,他对教育的重视说明在中国古代,教师普遍备受尊重。

In ancient China, comprehensive training in the classics was crucial to passing the Imperial Examinations (科举考试), a rigorous test that guaranteed successful male candidates a promising bureaucratic job. Therefore, many families sought to hire a tutor to help prepare for the exam.

在古代中国,对儒家经典的全面学习和训练是通过科举考试的关键。科举考试是一项严格的考试,考试成功则能为男性应试者提供大有前途的仕途工作。因此,许多家庭都会设法聘请家教来帮助他们准备考试。


Parents of prospective exam candidates often sent invitation letters to certain teachers, and accepting or denying the invitation was at the discretion of the educator.

准考生的家长经常向某些老师发出邀请函,接受或拒绝邀请是由老师自行决定的。

Teachers in ancient China were often compensated directly by families who presented tuition (学费) in the form of a customary 束脩(shxi), which consisted of a bundle of goods that usually included dried meat and other commodities (商品) or cash based on what the family could afford.

在中国古代,教师经常由雇用家庭直接以束脩的方式支付教学费用。束脩通常是一捆肉干和其他商品或钱币,束脩的内容取决于该家庭的负担能力。

Once inside the classroom, teachers were treated with the utmost (最大的) respect by students, who kowtowed to and accepted the authority of their educators without question. This customary student-teacher relationship was rooted in the Confucian belief that rigorous education and strict hierarchies (等级制度) are necessary catalysts (催化剂) for harmonious societies.

一旦进入教室,教师就会受到学生最大的尊重,他们会向老师磕头,无条件接受老师的权威。这种传统的师生关系植根于儒家的信念,即严格的教育和等级制度是和谐社会的必要催化剂。


Early Teachers’ Day celebrations

早期的教师节庆祝活动

Since Teachers’ Day was traditionally conflated with a celebration of the life and contributions of Confucius, commemorating the philosopher remained an important holiday practice throughout much of Chinese history.

由于教师节传统上是为了纪念孔子的一生和贡献而设置的,因此在中国历史上大部分时间里,纪念这位哲学家一直是一个重要的节日惯例。

Emperors and officials celebrated the holiday by visiting regional Confucian temples, known as 孔庙. These ancient Confucian temples, thousands of which are open to visitors across China today, often house literary collections and cultural relics related to the sage (圣人) and his disciples.

在这一天,皇帝和官员们会参观当地的孔子寺庙,即孔庙。如今有数千座古老的孔庙对中国各地的游客开放,里面通常收藏着与孔子及其弟子有关的文学著作合集和文物。


In addition to paying homage to Confucius through temple visits and ceremonies, court educators were also treated to extravagant banquets (奢华宴会), and teachers around the country frequently received extra compensation in the form of 束脩.

除了通过寺庙参观和仪式向孔子致敬之外,宫廷教育工作者还会被设宴款待,全国各地的教师经常以束脩的形式获得额外补偿。

Because teaching is generally regarded as an honorable profession in China today, it should come as no surprise that Teachers’ Day remains an important holiday.

在今天的中国,教学被普遍认为是一种光荣的职业,所以一直以来,教师节是一个重要的节日也就不足为奇了。


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